Exquisite B & W Costume Jewerly

Exquisite B & W Costume Jewerly
Exhibited at Holland Days in Malacca

Thursday, May 17, 2007

Portuguese-Malacca tin coinage

Variety tin coinage that mint in Melaka and circa 1511-1641.
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Tuesday, May 8, 2007

MAM Disagreed With Joe & Other On Definition of “Magic Coins”

“…….The term “magic coins” used throughout this volume of Joe Cribb is an invented name for the objects being discussed only. Covarrubias used the term “magic coin” to describe the pieces he was told about (Cavarrubias 1937, p. 142) . Hobart also chose the word “magically” to convey her informant’s description of the power of the coins (Hobart 1987, p. 189). Rentes stated that the pieces he saw ‘never used in currency, but, purely for magical purposes’ (Rentes 1936, p. 302). He also used the Malay word ‘keramat’ to identify the magical power which the coin embodied . The equivalent word in Javanese is ‘ kasekten’ (meaning supernatural power) (Koentjaraningrat 1985, p. 412)…..”
Joe Cribb in his volume, page 82, “…….‘Magic Coins of Java, Bali and the Malay Peninsula” mentioned that : “….The use of coin-like charms in China was a very powerful custom which gave rise to the creation of a large and diverse range of designs, seeking many different benefits for their owners. The custom also spread to Japan, Korea and Vietnam, adding to the range of designs and functions. Examples invoking the forces of Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism and Shintpism are documented (Hou 1975; Wang 1997, pp 150-5; Cribb 1986, pp 153 and 156; Cribb 1986 ; Thiery1987; Kugahara 1972)……”

Cribb must have confused over the real teaching of Buddhism and Taoism, also between the Confucianism and Buddhism, and between the Buddhism and China folk custom, folk lore. For instance, in the real Buddhism world and promoting, Buddhism never used such so-called coins-like as “Buddhism amulets “ as many described

This is a highly misleading statement made, which may cause a lot of misunderstanding of their so-called academic study of “magic coin” and “Flower Money” of China community were practicing, since early Han Dynasty, which North Song officially documented in “ “Chuan Zhi” by Hong-Jhun and Encyclopedia of Ancient Coinage” by Ting Fok-Poh.

MAM prefers this naming of ‘ magic coins’ for China coin-like be originally termed as “Flower Money” which can be categorized into 9 Category with 42 functional purposes, ( in Chinese, called : ) ,
from human being of their “Life, Ageing, Sick and Die” closely linked with their living environment, beings, planet, gods and devils, animal and lives on earth, underwater or space, its materials used consists of gold, silver, bronze, copper, lead & tin.

Here, MAM must clarified that Buddhism never in any form to encourage this kind of folk religious ceremony or for any personal ritual offering
In fact, what all read and were told are some form of Taoism religious function, and mostly are conducted for local folk customs. Hence, never have any of ‘Buddhism amulet” be created or issued by Buddhism temples or organizations or private communities.
s, as superstition is strictly prohibited from Buddhism.
MAM should advised those academic researchers and archaeologists of these magic coins that the word of “Buddhism amulets” (page 88, Cribb volume, refer to Thailand Tambiah case of age and authenticity of an amulet used in Thailand ) should not be used to describe these magic coins for charm or temple ritual offerings, as this is highly sensitive issues of describing these ‘magic coins ‘ especially of Chinese-style’ be confused with real teaching of Buddhism, as what Joe explained early!

Again, Joe Cribb related the “…Islamic magic coins from the Malay Peninsula (Series 17 & 18) (Page 88) were designed to meet the requirement of users…..in the Malay Peninsula such activities are identified as magical because the deities invoked are not part of Islam, the socially and officially recognized orthodox religion of the region. In some senses it is the popular or folk religion of the Malays – as distinct from orthodox Islam, but it involves Islamic beliefs while also carrying traces of the earlier religion of the local peoples, a mixture of Hinduism, Buddhism and local shamanic beliefs. These systems were reinforced by the immigration of Javanese during early nineteenth century…”

MAM would also like to see clarification from Joe Cribb that MAM never seen these so-called “Islamic magic coins from the Malay Peninsula” , as what Joe mentioned, also never be found any of this kind in Melaka discovery since 1969-2004.

We also doubted in some aspects of what Joe researched in the above paragraph, regarding the mentioned “Islamic magic coins of Malay Peninsula”. These “ Islamic magic coins” is definitely very much different from what MAM found in the areas of Melaka, especially those categories of Malacca Sultanate Period, we termed as “Islamic Money” and “Animal Money”, either in form of their designs, materials used.

Question now is: Can these officially issued, government-backed monetary of China Copper Cash Coins be classified and categorized as “Magic Coins” or “ as “Charm “ or “ Temple Offerings ” or “Ritual Ceremonial “ or personal “Amulets” just because they are used and found in many religious and ritual purposes recently or reported ?

This is the key question MAM would like to seek clarification and explanation from those always claimed & termed the “Melaka animal money” as “Magic Coins” or “For Charm or religious Offerings purposes ”?

Where are the archives or official documents did reported these animal money were found and used for ritual or religions purposes, or for personal charm and amulet?

When and where these animal money were discovered and proved to be used for these purposes? All parties claims need more comprehensive academic materials and solid archaeological data or environmental evidence to substantiate it.

Or, it is most appropriate and more professionally and ethically to categorize these currency used in any religious and ritual purposes, is due it Royal authority and Royal power endorsed by those Kings, Emperors or Sultans, Rajas, to exorcise their most feared gods and devils, as what China copper cash coins be used widely in Nusantara and Mainland China for Taoism religious functions and ritual purposes?

MAM also never come across any official documents or archive of Malaysia, or from London, or China regarding these “ animal money” has been used in any religious functions, communities ritual or celebration purposes. Here, MAM prefer to jointly conduct further study and comprehensive academic research and archaeological study for these controversial issues, with PERZIM and Muzium Negara or any other relevant interested parties, either from domestic or overseas, or jointly.

MAM has put up this Proposal officially to PERZIM of Malacca State Government, also to Muzium Negara of Federal level.

Datuk Chan Teck Chan, JP
President of MAM
Committee Member of ICOMON (Money & Banking), UNESCO, United Nations

Is Melaka Tin Money, A Charm, or Religious Offerings ?

Joe Cribb commented that : “…….The coin shape of the magic coins is not fortuitous, but is an intentional reference to the function of the magic coin as offering, charm or ritual implement. It refers to the role of currency as an expression of relationships. The most prominent relationship for currency in the present day appears to be economic, but the underlying relationship is a social one and it is this aspect to which the magic coins refer….”

Joe further expressed his view “……Coinness of the magic coins was therefore a means of expressing a relationship. In the same way that it was deemed appropriate for currency to be a suitable form of offering to a temple, so magic coins needed to retain their coin-like attributes in order for them to express the relationship between their owner and the spirit world….”
MAM would like to draw the attention of Joe Cribb, also Covarrubias and Hobart that most of the copper cash coins of China, from Han Dynasty to Qin Dynasty, especially Song and Ming Dynasty one, are commonly used as one of the important tool to make those “ Money Sword” ( a kind of ritual instrument for Taoism and folk religious of local people in Mainland China, also found commonly practiced in ASEAN Chinese-based, Taoism-related religious communities, as Ghost Buster, to exorcise, anti-devil for personal protection).

Also many of the China-minted and issued copper cash coins of Han-Song-Ming-Qin Dynasty be applied for common use in Feng-shui and fortune-teller, as part of their ritual ceremony.

Maritime Archaeology Museum, Clarification & Explanation

Tin Money of Melaka, from early 13th century of animal shapes and designs can be seen as symbolic of the actual and ritual roles of currency within Nusantara, especially within the societies of Java, Bali, Malay Peninsula and Indochina.

Joe Cribb in his book, “Magic Coins of Java, Bali and the Malay Peninsula”, explained that:”…….. in the Malay Peninsula such activities are identified as magical because the deities invoked are not part of Islam, the socially and officially recognized orthodox religion of the region. In some senses it is the popular or folk religion of the Malays – as distinct from orthodox Islam (Endicott 1970. p.7)) but it involves Islamic beliefs while also carrying traces of the earlier religion of the local peoples, a mixture of Hinduism, Buddhism and local shamanic beliefs….”

Joe Cribb said that “….These earlier systems were reinforced by the immigration of Javanese during the early nineteenth century, bringing with them a similar mixture of Islam and earlier Indian and local religions. The distinction between Islam and this non-Islamic belief system is made in the Malay Peninsula by identifying the non-Islamic system as ‘magic’ particularly when it employed to affect the world through non-physical means…”

Joe revealed that “…….When Stamford Raffles created the first known collection of Javanese magic coins he believed that they were old coins and collected them as a potential tool for historical research. Most collectors who have followed Raffles lead also collected them as if they were coins. This even applies to those who collected them after Netscher and van der Chijs and Millies…. “.

“….From the practical point of view, in spite of their reclassification from coins to coin-like amulet, magic coins still retained the characteristics which prompted coin collectors to include them in their collections. The same characteristic s also led to their inclusion in museum coin collections, separating, for example, Raffles’s pieces from the rest of the collection when in 1860 the British Museum set up a separate Department of Coins and Medals… Their coin-like characteristics make it easy for museum curators and coin collectors to keep them in coin collection, because they could be described in the same as coins and could be stored in the same storage systems as coins….”

In view of the situation and scenario Melaka tin money discovered and handled, as what we explained , since early ’60 within the complex of Melaka Cultural Heritage, just in front of Straits of Malacca, also along the Malacca River (Sg Melaka) leading to the Malacca Straits where most of the tin coins found, during the period of 1968-2004, this is why these tin money make it so difficult for numismatists, collectors, museum operators, appraisers, authenticators to study them.

Main reasons are: they did not follow the typical issue systems which allow numismatists to categorize and study coins as part of monetary system. They lacked the normal requisites and standard procedures for numismatic research, like, (A) Denomination system (B) Weight standard (C) Specified alloy (D) a Type, Inscription and Mint-mark system, which indicated their issuers, place of issue and sequence of issue. Problems of age and authenticity is another problems for us to handle it.

The standard answer and feedback are:

“…..those “Big and Medium size Crocodiles and Tortoise, animal money”…were found from Pulau Besar and its surrounding islands and seafront of Straits of Malacca”, may be due to the sensitivity of :-
(A) enforcement units of government agencies, like PERZIM, Marine Police & etc….
(B) commercial sensitivity of their income by revealing the locations and sites….
(C) or those items are found somewhere not in those areas they specified….anyway, MAM is very conservatively to observe all these development…we doubted….

One fundamental element our MAM noticed is: from those hundred pieces of tin money we authenticated and tested, having their common characteristics and similarities, that's

(A) those items are quite highly eroded and oxidized, and deeply muddied , like weathered….some with “crystal” encysted …these elements are highly impossible for anyone to artificially manual it; (some parties tried to replicate, but failed, doesn’t have that original shape, soft & new outlook, uncomfortable to touch and to see)

(B) instinct reading of human eyes, feeling and touching of its natural texture of : “ weathering, oxidization and erosion, with time consuming “sea water pressure and penetration of mudding chemical reaction” on surface & structure of tin money , is one of those things who can’t blind the eyes of appraisers and authenticators….on those newly minted and those found above sites.

(C)The question is Dating (When) and Place of Origin (Where)….no doubt, all interested parties have to address it professionally, academically and scientifically

This is our biggest challenge, hence our Museum proposed to set up a professional working team, work closely with PERZIM & Muzium Negara, to conduct this archaeological study and academic research, consists of competent and qualified personnel, as what we proposed to PERZIM early.

This is only our presumptive circumstantial evidence to circumstantiate these tin money found in Melaka..…hoping that is not the paralogism….anyway, this is my personal legitimate inference :- based upon the areas and years of artifacts of “ tin money and ceramics of Song/Ming Dynasty” found from the common sites of above mentioned…with what Department of Chemistry of Malaysia reported for those 16 items artifacts analyzed and tested scientifically and academically in 2002, by Government of Malaysia, also those relevant parties and person interviewed regarding the manner and method of finding the artifacts and tin money.

We must admit that we still facing many problems of insufficient archaeological data and academic research papers, to substantiate the legitimate claims of locations where artifacts discovered, all parties have to work closely and jointly to reinforce these shortcomings, spirit of complementary and supplementary shall prevail in this respect.

Authentication of Animal Money of Malacca…..When & Where…..?

The dating and location of those “animal money” found are the most disputed and controversial issues among the collectors and dealers, as some of the appraisers and authenticators we interviewed in Singapore, in Hongkong, China Numismatic Museum (CNM) or China Numismatic Society of China, under the central bank of PRC, People’s Bank of China.

CNM DG Prof Dai and Professor Zhou Weirong as Sec-General, both can only confirmed that some of the 20% tin less animal coins are found from Quanzhi Province, it may be dating to Han Dynasty ……but, some of the tin animal money MAM contributed to CNM, two set, consists of 40 over pieces of Malacca-found “series of tin money, from primitive coins, to animal coins, to Malacca Sultanate period, Zheng He Coins, Portuguese coins & Dutch coins..”, we were told that their scientific laboratory examination shown are similar to that results of Chemistry Department of Malaysia conducted in 2002, 70% tin and 30% lead and other elements.

From over 40 people our Museum interviewed from 1996-2004, especially from those fishermen from Portuguese Settlement, Bandar Hilir, Melaka, who always disposed of their discovered artifacts of “tin coins and animal money”, in the manner of pieces by pieces especially in Christmas, seasonal, not in big lot or in bulk… some 1-3, 5-8…

Also those relevant private collectors , individuals and dealers from Melaka Antiques Street (Jalan Hang Jebat) , or brokers to trade currency and tin coins, we interviewed ( in fact, is illegally to trade, as far as law is concerned in Malaysia, but is common practice among those sellers and buyers ) …

MAM thesis

MAM must make it clear that from all so-called magic coins displayed and tabled by Joe Cribb in his book, especially of its Javanese-style and cultural designs, found from Java, Bali or Malay Peninsula, its sizes and technique of manufacturing, characteristics and texture of these magic coins, are found totally different from what we discovered in Melaka, either of those Malacca Sultanate’s 15th century tin coinage, or of series of early 13-15th century animal money, or of Portuguese and Dutch coinage .

MAM will take note of what Millies’s methodology and Netscher together with van der Chijs’ study, as we recognized the objectives of his numismatic research as an aid to the broad discipline of oriental history, in fact, we are facing some constraints and limitations in addressing such a difficult field of numismatics of tin money and animal money.

MAM also appreciated from series of recoveries and excavations of shipwrecks of Sten Sjostrant, Sweden world renowned excavator and archaeologist, from where we found some relevant lead pyramid ingots (MAM collected 80 over pieces from Royal Nanhai wreck in 1997) , bidor and coin shaped coinage dated 15th century from South China Sea.

“…..The origin of the tin ingots is of great important , for it is fundamental in determining whether the Intan ship traded in China or simply took on a transshipped cargo in a Sumatran port (see Section 7.2)…Twenty lad ingots were recovered during the archaeological excavation. Some 277 kg of ingots were recovered prior to hat, along with a lead sphere of 12 cm diameter. The ingots are in form of rectangular slabs with rounded corners and have a hole at one end to facilitate handling, they typically measure 30 cm long by 15 cm wide by 4 cm thick, and weigh approximately 20 kg…”

But, what Joe Cribb try to establish its theory of “Places of Origin”, or “Period of Production” or “ non-monetary function”, can be considered as a good material for academic reference, we don’t think that is suitable and applicable to our Melaka’s tin money case, especially of those specific animal money found in Melaka, from the view of authenticity and evaluation, also of the texture and chemical composition of the artifacts found from Melaka in early ’60 – ’90 along the sea front of Straits of Malacca and along the riverside of Sg Melaka.

Islamic Currency & Melaka Tin Money Are Magic Coins….?

Joe Cribb, author of “Magic Coins of Java, Bali and the Malay Peninsula”, is a curator of South Asian coins in the Department o Coins and Medals, British Museum, he is the author of “Chinese Silver Currency Ingots 1750-1933”, “Eyewitness Guide : Money and Money in the Bank” , editor of the “ Money: From Cowrie Shells to Credit Cards”….…

Joe Cribb in his book, “ 1 Content and Arrangement”, reported that : “…..This volume presents an overview of the “magic coins” of South East Asia. Magic coins are coin-shaped metal objects which have been made in Java since the late thirteenth century, and subsequently on the island of Bali and in the Malay Peninsula, and which are used to bestow spiritual powers on their owners, protecting them from evil forces or bringing them good fortune. Although they have many of the characteristics of the coins formerly in use as money in this region, their designs are not official coin designs, but images and inscriptions which are thought to give them the potential to achieve their magical purpose…”

Joe Cribb presents his case, Places of Origin, “….from most of the magic coins with Javanese-style designs collected or reported from Java. Javanese-style pieces also been collected from Kelantan in the Malay Peninsula, some pieces collected in Malay Peninsula also include Islamic-style pieces with Arabic inscription. Islamic-style magic coins, copying the designs of Malay pieces, have also been reported from Thailand….but the use of what appears to be a magical Arabic inscription in the design indicates a South East Asian place of manufacture….”

Period of Production, Joe Cribb explained and analyzed that “….other factors can be used to suggest likely dates for some series of magic coins, based on the similarity of their designs to datable sculptures and bronzes of Jaya’s Majapahit period (1293-1528) and their relationship to the various styles of shadow puppets from Java and Bali. The relationship of the magic coin coins to the coins they copy also provides a terminus post qualm for their production. It is unlikely that the copying of the shape of Chinese coins in Java took place before the 13th century when they started to become widely available of the island (Wicks 1992, pp 290-7)

Coin Shapes, Joe Cribb further commented that: “….the overall form of the magic coins is derived from the shape of the Chinese bronze or brass cash coins which began to circulate widely in Java, Bali and the Malay Peninsula from the thirteenth century (Wick 1992, 209-7)

Non-monetary function, Joe Cribb explained that, “…..the suggestion that the objects described in this catalogue were not intended for monetary use, in spite of their coin-like characteristics, was first made by Netscher and Van der Chijs (1863,pp 135-8). Raffles (1817, vol. 2, 60-1) had described the pieces as ‘ancient coins’ and his view prevailed until the Dutch authors rejected it. They proposed an alternative view that the pieces could not be monetary as they did not conform to the patt
“…Chinese coins always have inscriptional designs, written in Chinese script, indicating the period of issue and function of the object. There is also no relationship between their designs and those found on coins of other traditions in the region…” Joe added.
ern of the earlier gold and silver coins of Java and their designs were similar to the images of gods and symbols associated with the Javanese calendar. They accordingly suggested that the pieces were personal amulets…”

Dating of The Tin Money of Malacca…Dr Michael Flecker

Author of the doctorate thesis, based upon his long experience and career in shipwrecks excavation and artifacts recovery in Nusantara region, especially in Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia, Dr Michael, reported in this thesis as follow:-

“…..Identically, shaped artifacts are illustrated in Mitchiner (1979: 398 Fig. 5.87). In the accompanying text it is stated that small conical tin or gangsa (tin/copper alloy) ingots were being used for currency in the Malay Peninsular, where the tin was mined, from around the 13th century. These followed two evolutionary paths. On the one hand the cone became angular, truncated, hollowed out, and stamped to produce the familiar “tin hat” money of Pahang. On the other hand, the early cones were shaped into canoes m crocodiles, frogs, and other animals, which came to be known as “gambar”……”
“…. This array of artifacts is grouped by material and configuration, although the objects are of different size and shape. They would have remained in the miscellaneous and unidentified category had it not been for the apparent identification of the “canoe currency” above. One of these artifacts was analyzed by the Materials Institute of Western Australia and found to be 54% tin and 46% lead….”

“….The two or three bent lugs that characterize this artifacts group indicate the possible provenance. With the base metal apparently the same as that of the “canoe currency” possibility is raised to a strong likelihood. This “canoe currency” illustrated in Mitchiner (1979: 398) has been clenched onto a length of string. It is suggested here that the lugs on the clasp type artifacts were also clenched onto string, and therefore are different versions of gambar, small, shaped tin alloy ingots used for currency and originating in the tin producing regions of the Malay peninsular….”

“….. The lead content of these artifacts is unexpectedly high. There are lead deposits in the Malay peninsular and in west Sumatra, but they are not significant (van Bemmelen 1949. 161). Lead certainly increase corrosion resistance and malleability, which allows the lugs to be clenched onto a string and unclenched without breaking off. Of possible relevance are a number of lead alloy medallions found in Perak, Malaysia. They are 5 cm in diameter and bear a mythical bird on one face and three rows of Indianised script on the other. (Lamb. 1964. 168). While little is known about their provenance or use, apart from some speculation that they were temple money for offering and religious ceremonial celebration, they could be a derivative of the older gambar currency produced on the Malay peninsular….”

“…..Although the idea of coinage must have been long known in Indonesia from almost a millennium of trade with India, China and mainland Southeast Asia, there is no evidence of coins being used in the local economy until the 9th century. Up to that time, and for several overlapping centuries, such items, as iron bars, measures of cloth and rice, bronze ware, and certain types of gold rings were used as media of exchange in market contexts (Wisseman Chritie, 1996: 245). From archaeological evidence there is no indication that either Indian or Chinese coins pre-empted the use of indigenous coins in Java and Sumatra….”

“…..One of the main cargo items was tin. The tin was shipped in ingots of various shapes and sizes. By far the majority , some 755 pieces, were in the shape of a truncated pyramid. Eleven were in the shape of a cone, twenty in the shape of a flat disk, four in the shape of a flat bar, and two in the shape of a rod. Several hundred ingots weighing some 650 kg were recovered prior to documented excavation, they were almost all truncated pyramids, reportedly from an area

centered on E7 and E8. Many of the ingots were highly corroded, to the extent that only fragments of some ingots remained. Most of the pyramidal ingots were of a fairly standard size, approximately 11cm wide at the base and 4.5 cm high, weighing between 2.2 and 2.5 kg….”

“…..Scanning electron microscope elemental analysis was carried out on two of the tin ingots by the Materials Institute of Western Australia, They were found to be almost pure tin 99.6% in one case and 98.6% in the other , with only traces of zinc and lead. It would have been impossible to refine tin bearing ores to such purity using traditional techniques, therefore the metal has been obtained from smelting tin sands (cassurite), which are essentially pure tin oxide (SnO2)…..”

“…..As much as two thirds of the world’s tin deposits are founding Southeast Asia, along the so-called Tin Belt. The Belt actually starts in Yunnan in the north, where deposits are fairly scattered, and runs down the Isthmus of Kra, and the Malay Peninsular, to Bangka and Belitung in the south. Adjacent parts of Sumatra have a few small deposits, but the rest of Indonesia and all of the Philippines have no tin at all (Bronson 1992: 84)…..Before Yunnan began the large scale of development of its mineral resources, Southeast Asia would have held a virtual monopoly on tin supply. Java, Cambodia, southern Vietnam, the Philippines and the whole of central and eastern Indonesia would have been obliged to import all the tin they used from the moment they first began to manufacture bronze, even India relied on Southeast Asia for its supply of tin….”
“…..Kedah and Selangor on the west coast of the Malay Peninsular, and the Pattani on the east coast, were renowned for their tin. Kedah in particular, was noted for its tin by early Arab traders and geographers. Referring to the late 10th century, Indrisi says of Kalah (Kedah), “There is a tin mine rich in tin. The metal is very pure and bright, but merchants adulterate it after its extraction from the mine and take it away to other places” (Wheatey, 1966: 219). Ibn Khurdadhbih writes of Kilah (Kedah) , “ It contains famous mines of al-Qala’i tin and plantations of bamboo.” (Wheatly, 1966: 218) …..”

“….. A number of stone moulds for casting tin ingots have been found in Malaysia. A bi-faced mould for truncated pyramid ingots with a wide base flange was found in Malacca (Peacock, 1957: 185). This shape is the precursor to the so-called “tin hat” money of the Malay Peninsular, and post-dates the truncated ingot without a base flange. A stone mould for truncated pyramid ingots was found amongst mine tailings at Jelebu in Negeri Sembilan (Peacock 1957: 185). An ingot cast in this mound would have been a base width of 9 cm and height of 4.2 cm with an “X” decorating the top surface just like on the smaller tin ingots from the Intan Wreck. Two tin ingots were found in the remains of a dug-out canoe recovered from a depth of over 3 m in the Tronoh in Perak. (Sieveking 1955:209)….”

“…..The close similarity in size and shape between the Intan ingots and those produced in the Malay Peninsular strongly reinforces this surmise. The author is unaware of any evidence to suggest the shape and size of contemporary tin ingots produced in China, but the chances of them replicating those produced in the Malay Peninsular, right down to the marking seem too remote to entertain….”

“…..while the actual alloying material of the Intan pieces has not been analytically determined, tin is almost certainly the base metal. From macroscopic examination the material of these artifacts seem to be the same as that used in the “currency” discussed below, corrosion resistant tin alloy. The base metal, size and shape is the same as Mitchiner’s examples. If the artifacts are indeed a monetary equivalent, it seem that this canoe-shaped tin-alloy currency was in circulation at least three hundred years earlier than previously thought, and over a much wider area….”

“ Tin Money of Malacca, 15th-17th century:

Our Museum, MAM, has officially presented its first Paper, titled “ Tin Money of Malacca, 15th-17th century: Its Origin & History of Development”, in International Conference of ICOMON (Money & Banking), UNESCO-ICOM in Being, China, Oct 2002, where our text was re-drafted by GM PERZIM, Dr Badariah, and copy to DG of Muzium Negara, Datuk Dr Adi Bin Hj Taha, attached with full set of Malacca’s sea front and river-based found tin money artifacts, from tin money of primitive period of pre Malacca Sultanate, 15th century to Malacca Sultanate Era, Zheng He Period, to Portuguese Occupation Period, 1511-1641 and Dutch Occupation Period, 1641 – 1796.

This is the first time, our Malacca tin money was introduced to the international institution of UNESCO, to seek help and cooperation, for further academic research and archaeological study. This is our first cooperation & cultural exchange between MAM in Malaysia and China Numismatic Museum/China Numismatic Society of People’s Bank of China.

One of India delegates from Central Bank, when we met in Beijing, under the ICOMON International Conference of Bank & Money Museums, held in Beijing in Oct 2002, we were told, animal money in India can dating back to 2,000 years….China delegates told us that primitive animal money of China can be traced up to Han Dynasty, also found in Perak……in Malaysia, we can’t find any relevant, academic and archaeological data of tin money of Malacca…besides the “ The Encyclopedia of The Coins of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, 1400-1967” by Saran Singh….!

As what other said..” both Siam and Majapahit claimed suzerainty over Peninsula….in 1403, when Malacca was visited by a Ming Dynasty envoy, Yin-King, Parameswara seize this opportunity to seek political recognition from Ming Emperor and support against the Siam….in 1405, Parameswara send an embassy to China and received recognition…..that is the beginning of the history “Admiral Zheng He: was sent to Malacca in 1409 with his treasure fleet….in 1403, ambassadors were sent from port to port , to Java, where two kings were found, also to Malacca…Megat Iskandar Shah is he Muslim name of Parameswara…..may be some Hinduism & Islamic influence were brought into from Indonesia and India…..

From the history of 7 voyages of Admiral Zheng He to “ Western Ocean”, that is:-

1) 1405 July 11, Yong-lok Year 3-5
2) 1407-1409 Yong-lok Year 5-7
3) 1409-1411 Yong-lok Year 7-9
4) 1413-1415 Yong-lok Year 11-13
5) 1417-1419 Yong-lok Year 15-17
6) 1421-1422 Yong-lok Year 19-20
7) 1431-1433 Zhen-tek Year 6

We can only find that, based upon the official record of China archive, treasure fleet of Zheng He only visited Malacca 3 times……what Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) related and other documentary reported, still full of legendary way to talk about Bukit China, Zheng He Temple, Perigi Hang Li Po….as picture of Zheng He in China, are shown totally different from one province to other province, many different story related to us…no proper record of Zheng He….this is what we experience in 2003-04, when we visited all historical sites and places of Zheng He in over 45 days…in 3 trips we made, with officials and experts from People’s Bank of China and Zheng He Society of Nanking, Yunnan, Beijing, Tai-chang, Chang-lok, Chuan-chew…!.

What were the important items brought into Malacca at that time by Zheng He royal entourage…..besides common commodities and trading goods, what kind of currency they used and circulated in Malacca, or in other region of Nusanatara (Nanyang) they visited......gold or silver or copper…? As we never see any tin minted money or coins be used in China…..why tin money of Malacca, mostly are tin minted….?

What shocking us is the workmanship and aesthetically designed animal shape, calligraphy of Chinese, Song Dynasty and religious totem of Taoism and Buddhism….are those questions can’t be answered since Day-1 we studied. We still need a lot of further academic research and archaeological study be conducted. Jointly with China, with PERZIM-Melaka, Muzium Negara-Malaysia and other interested parties in this tin money of Melaka, individual collectors, dealers and Numismatic Society of Malaysia.

We doubt those comments of “Tin coins are replicated or duplicated in Malaysia”, but, from the costing and market value, number of tin coins circulated in market, its techniques and texture of Weathering, Oxidization, Erosion, are the illogical and insensible for anyone to do so…..animal money are still highly demanded in market, very limited circulation, and seldom seen to be displayed in any antiques shops in Jalan Hang Jebat (Antiques Street of Melaka , Helen Street formally known) or Kuala Lumpur or Singapore, from our Museum surveyed since 2001 to June 2005.

Why some tin money minted with Chinese characters, China fortune and lucky symbols, like, rooster, fish, tortoise, chicken, crocodile, some attached with Buddhism lotus and Taoism religious totem…not less with Hinduism and Islamic cultural influence…is quite mixed with combination of various primitive totems.

What Government Endorsed This Theory of Malacca Tin Money...

For better understanding of all these development and events surrounding the Tin Money issues, now, is better for us to read some of the significant messages written in brochure of Post Malaysia, issued in July 21, 2005 to commemorate the “ Malaysia-China” 600th Anniversary-China Relationships, 1405 – 2005, What Government of Malaysia commented :

“……This year marks the 600th of Admiral Zheng He’s first expedition to Malacca. Up till today, Malaysia regards China as a major trading and business partner and bilateral economic cooperation remains the cornerstone of Malaysia-China policy……..”

“ ….Evidence of early trade can be found in the form of tin coins used extensively by merchants. Later, imports and exports of Islamic ceramics and Nyonya ware in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively revealed that the connection between the countries had gone beyond economic and diplomatic relations – it has encroached into our custom and way of life…..”

“…Merchant Ships: Between 1405 and 1433, Admiral Zheng He commanded a fleet of 62 treasure ships and more than 100 other vessels to Malacca and 30 other countries in the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian and Mediterranean Sea. The ships carried crews of sailors, officers, translators, warriors , pilots, medicinal experts and craftsmen. Merchant ships also brought with them silk, porcelain ware, tea and gun powder for trading in exchange for local spices and other goods such as glassware, oils, textile cotton and fruits from South and West Asia……..”

“……Besides barter trading, coins and other money were extensively used in 15th century Malacca. Early Chinese merchants introduced tin animal money in the form of rooster, tortoise, fish and crocodile. During Zheng He’s trade missions to Malacca, cooper coins were issued and used by most merchants, but were subsequently replaced with tin which were mined and minted in Malacca……”

What Zheng He Imported To Malacca…..Tin Coins or Song Copper Money…..or minted locally, together with the neighboring States under the influence of Ming Emperor…..as its artistic designing skill, with Taoism and Buddhism totem, and its techniques of production and minting expertise of tin animal money, is highly impossible for locals to mint it…?

Are those “Zheng He Tin Coins” (should be classified as Song Copper Coins) be imported at early stage, only after shortage of its supply, then local mined tin were used and Song copper coins were replaced with 78% tin and 22% lead , density 7.703, as base metal for circulation in Melaka…or be minted by merchants from China in Melaka, or by local Chinese headman as private money, with various titles and designs based upon of northern Song Dynasty’s issued Chinese copper money…or…?

As what Professor Zhou Weirong ( Deputy Secretary General of China Numismatic Society cum director of China Numismatic Museum, People’s Bank of China) commented, “…. Those so-called Zheng He coins, should be categorized as one of the local currency of Melaka at that time, by the people of China, merchants or headman who issued for replacing those imported Song copper coins, due to its shortage, is quite a normal practices….”

Prof. Zhou further analyzed that: “….those animal money, especially of those small or medium size of tortoise, with Chinese lucky, prosperity and fortune characteristic and totem, also with that artistic workmanship, and high quality of calligraphy from Su-tong-po of Song Dynasty, is very rare to be seen so far….this may be the first of its kind we found from all animal coins in this world of today…..dating still needed to be further authenticated and studied…..”

Scientific Laboratory test on Tin coins

C) Based upon the scientific laboratory test conducted by Jabatan Kimia Malaysia , for the following Tin Coins sent, on 19th September 2002, as strongly recommended by PERZIM Melaka, where we quoted as what Chemistry Department of Malaysia authenticated & reported. In their Report No: MAKMAL (PJ) PER 673/02, Keputusan Ujian Kimia Atas TinCoins Melaka, dated 19 September, 2002, signed by the Director General of Malaysia Chemistry Department, Chang Hon Fong :-

(C) Dataran Merdeka, 80 acres present sites of Mahkota Parade/Parkson Shopping Mall, where 3 shipwrecks found, when reclamation project carried out in 1983, with lots of Portuguese's & Dutch tin coins, those primitive tin coins originated from pre-Malacca Sultanate and during the period of Zaman Kesultanan Melaka, in form of animal shape, some combined with Arabic and Chinese influences, with 80% Tin composite and 20 % Lead, as what Department of Malaysia Chemistry’s test conducted in 2002 and shown. Also discovered many Ming &Qin Dynasty’s ceramics, blue & white, some found Song Dynasty celadon….;

D) Kota Laksamana’s housing projects, Tranquerah, Klebang Kecil, Limbongan and Klebang Besar, tin coins and Ming/Qin Dynasty’s celadon and ceramic ;
(E) along the Sg Melaka when clearing & beautification project of river conducted in 2002-05, near areas of Pringgit, Kg Morten, Pengkalan Rama, Kg Hulu, Kg Pantei, Jalan Kota, Jalan Parasmewara, in front of Stadhyut & Clock Tower.

E) This new discovery in 2002-2005, mostly found are Portuguese coins in form of Dinheiro and Bazarucco, but, most of the tin coins are seriously eroded and highly oxidized, due to the movement of shallow fresh water of Sg Melaka (Melaka River), not like those found early in 1970 – 1980, from the thick black muddy areas of sea front of Straits of Malacca along the Bandar Hilir to Klebang Besar, especially those areas within the complex of Kompleks Warisan Melaka, that is why most of the tin coins contained in this well protected mud, deep in the 2-5 meter sea water, when discovered from this areas, are found in good condition, some remain intact, with clear design and wordings.

(F) Dumping sites at Semabok and construction of Public Bank premises in early ’70 & etc….
(G) Reclamation and housing development projects carried out in the areas of Melaka Raya, Parkson Parade, Kota Laksamana, Fly Over, Tranquerah, Klebang Kecil & Klebang Besar, Limbongan, from ‘1980 to 2004, a lot tin coins found, together with ceramics and celadon of Song, Ming & Qin Dynasty, blue and white form the majority.


At the same sites, we also found some Dutch coinage, the first Dutch Governor immediately introduced Dutch coinage of the V.O.C. “ Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie “ (Dutch East India Company), after the capture of Malacca from Portuguese February 1641, ( 1641- 1795 and 1818-1825), while the earliest issued Portuguese coins & other currency circulated for trading purposes still retained, but, the Portuguese Bazaruccos were withdrawn., and melted down, re-issued as newly issued Dutch-designed bazaar pieces, these Dutch look Bazaruccos were the only trading coins minted in Malacca during the whole administration of Dutch occupation.
Gradually the Portuguese coins were withdrawn, the only coins accepted and recognized officially as legal tender were the Spanish 8 Real Silver coins and the coinage of the V.O.C. for use in the Netherlands East Indies which consisted of Malacca as well as all Dutch possessions in Sumatra.
In fact, there was a scarcity of small change during the early years of the Dutch occupation of Malacca, the Dutch authorities in Batavia issued emergency copper ¼ Stiver and ½ Stiver coins of Batavia bearing the date 1644 for use only in Malacca as well as Banda and Celyon, but, it was stopped for issue by the administrators of the V.O.C in Holland.

Where Tin Money Discovered…?

First patch of the “Tin Coins, Tin Money of Malacca “ were found from the areas of Kampong Hulu in1968, also in Kg Jawa’s river side in late ’60-early ’70, where Portuguese tin-minted coins, named as “Bastaro” , 1st & 2nd Issues, 1511, 2nd Issue 1512-1515, Weight : averagely measured at 42-51 grammes, Diameter: obverse 36-40 mm, reverse 37-41mm, Thickness 4-7mm, Edge: Plain (Note: Observe: armillary sphere with ecliptic circle falling from left to right surrounded by legend “D M P R D E P V S O R D I E M A L A” meant Dom Manoel the First, King of Portugal and Lord of India and Malacca. Reverse : Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ surrounded by two circles of beads and the legend “CRVX XPI NOSTRE SPES UNICA” meant Cross of Christ our only hope – of salvation.

BASTARO: 3rs Issue. Diameter : 28-29mm, Weight: 10-13g.
SOLDO: (1st & 2nd Issue Diameter: 23 – 25mm, Weight: 3.5 – 4.8 grammes), and DINHEIRO: Diameter: 19-20mm, Weight: 3.8g. Observe: Crowned arms of Portugal and legend ”PORTV” (Portugal), Reverse: Armillary sphere with five parallels and legend “IN DEO (in God)
BAZRUCCO: Diameter: 13mm , Weight: 0.9 – 1.20grammes, Observe: Crowned arms of Portugal within a circle, Reverse: Crude representation of a sailing ship, the nao.

What Malaysian Government Announced

From Controversial to Authenticated Issue: Tin Money of Malacca
After 40-year long argument for the (i) country of origin (ii) place of production and mint (iii) its authenticity and historical value of Malaysian monetary circulation in 15th century, in form of Malacca Tin Money, all these are the controversial issues and hot debated subject of Malaysian currency, among the collectors and dealers in ’80- ’90, which tin coins found:-

Tin Money: The Time Capsule Of Malaya & Malacca

Why our Tin Currency of Perak, Kedah, Pahang, Johore, Malacca were found with the religious and cultural influences of Indian Hinduism & Buddhism, Middle East’s Arabic & Islamic influences and China cultural characteristics ? Possibilities may be as follow:-
In the 5th century to the Islamization of Arabic, Arab & Persian traders were living in some of the major southern ports of China, especially in Guanchow. There is a high possibility that they stopped over in Malay Archipelago for fresh water and other necessities required on their sea journeys.
B) Only when the rise of Islam in the 8th & 9th century, the Arab lands became the hub of An united, wealthy and powerful empire, and thus, an important commercial trading Center for the local products of India, China and Southeast Asia. Also, in the early stage 9th century, Arab and other Muslim merchants had begun to dominate the Southeast Asian trading zone.

Along the Malacca Straits, Arab merchants’ colonies were established at Kalah ( Kedah)
Zahaj (Srivijaya), Palembang and Lanuri, northern Sumatra. These important settlements facilitated the expansion of Islam during the 13th century when Muslim missionaries, mainly Sufis from West Asia, traveled to these ports to reinforce Islam among the traders.

C-2) Kedah as the focus of Indian commerce…? Some documentary and archaeological
Evidence points to Kedah as the pivot of Indian commercial interests in Malaya, even Without much solid evidence to prove it, but, it is likely many Indian merchants did visit The Kedah during the late prehistoric items Brahmans caste is one of the subject always Mention.

D) The China influence found in 5th century…? The most important documentary evidence Of the Kingdom of “ Chi Tu” is contained in the “ Chi Tu Guo Ji” , the account written
By the Sui Dynasty envoys after a visit to the kingdom in 607-610AD….”Chi Tu” means “red earth land” or “ Tanah Merah “ in Malay, in fact, is a popular place in peninsular of Malaya, one in Kelantan tiver valley, which gives credence to the theory that the Kingdom was situated in inland Kelantan, however Tanah Merah also occurs in Negeri Sembilan and Kedah……!

E) In 607 AD, China under Sui Dynasty, new envoys sent to establish relations with foreign Countries, they passed Langkasuka (Patani, Thailand) and reached “Chi Tu” (Kelantan, Tanah Merah)…the most important Chinese description of protohistoric
Malaysia was written by the Buddhist monk, Yi-qing, who sailed from China to Srivijaya in 671 AD. He stayed there for 6 months studying Sankrit grammer, before saling on to Melayu, in southern Sumatra, then to Kedah….! Yi-qing clearly stated that his voyages were all undertaken in ships belonging to Malay kings, underlining the active role of Malay in the commerce of this period.

F) As early relations were dictated by Chinese laws against unauthorized contact between Chinese and foreigners, from Han Dynasty to Song Dynasty (960-1126 AD), no Chinese could leave China without official permission, not could foreigners travel freely wit the China, only religious and diplomatic contact were permitted.

G) Only in 878 AD, an significant event involving foreign merchants took place in Canton,The rebel leader Huang Chao sacked Canton, and massacred thousands of foreign merchants….Muslim traders left China and flocked to a Peninsular Malaya port known to Arabs as Kalah, probably Kedah of today, or perhaps Takupa (southern Thailand), Pulau Tioman and Johore also well known to Arabs at that time.

New Discovery of Malacca Tin Money

New Discoveries of Malacca Tin Money
Early 15th century, we found that ingots currency produced were originated from Malay Peninsula. First tin pagoda or pyramid shaped ingots appeared in Selangor, Perak, Pahang, to lesser degree, Kedah and Perlis.
Another shapes of money were developing as well, besides of varieties of primitively formed tin ingots, various animal shaped ingots appeared in early 15th, or much earlier than 14th century, in quite a rough workmanship.

The form of animal shaped ingots was originated both, from Hindu (e.g elephant) and from China (e.g. tortoise), it also carried the religious value, some called it “magic money”. It was very common practice for Chinese customs by making an animal sacrifice before indulging in the customary celebration. Animal shape were widely produced in Perak. A variety of ingots formed on pagoda and pyramid series in Pahang.
In fact, the first primitive form of native money appeared in Malay Peninsula, Kra Istgmus Hindu Kingdom of Kalah in early 8th century….Southern Indochina and Malay Archipelago were under strong influence of India, where we all can witness it the flat coinage of this region. Chinese presence in this region, Chinese ingots also came into circulation and developed new form of ingot currency.

The History of Melaka Currency/Tin Money Of Malacca

During the period of Malacca Sultanate Era, the traders and merchants used mostly the gold dust, pieces of silver bars, also blocks of pure tin in their transactions, beside early days of barter trade. Gold Dinars and tin tipis coinage from Pasai, Sumatra were also used in Malacca at that time, only very small purchases, cowries shells were also accepted in their payment. Chinese copper cash was also used. From the Ming Annals in 1436, Fei Sin, a Chinese chronicler, he reported that blocks of pure tin ingots in circulation in Malacca, were weighted at “ 1.1/4 katis (755 grams) and 1.1/2 katis (9076 grammes), but, coins of Malacca were not mentioned at all.
The first tin “ pitis “ coinage issued in the reign of Sultan Muzzafar Shah (1445-1477) and bear his name , are the common currency used and trade during the Sultan Muzzafar Shah period, this tin coinage was die struck and was known as “Pitis”. These tin coins of Malacca were withdrawn by the Portuguese soon after their capture of Malacca in August 1511 and melted down at the Malacca mint, anyway, the Arabic inscriptions resemble that of coins also found in Southern India and may have been influenced by Muslim traders from this region.
Islamic Monetary of Melaka , First Of Its Kind In This World, Islamic Tin Money… 600 years…
Early found “Islamic money” from the areas of Mahkota Parade in 1983, Kg. Hulu and sea front of Straits of Malacca in early ’70 and ’80, with average diameters of 15mm – 33mm, sound s issued under the period of “Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1445-1456)”, “Sultan Mansur Shah 1456-1477” and “Sultan Ahmad Ibni Mahmud Shah 1510”, with average diameters of 13 mm – 22 mm, can be categorized in (A) with Arabic “Muzaffar Shah Al Sultan”, reverse interlaced with Arabic inscription “Nasir al Dunia Wa’l Din”, (B) inArabic “Mansur Shah bin Muzaffar Shah al-Sultan”, half tipis in Arabic (C) “Mansur Shah ibnu Muzaffar Al-Adil”, (D) “Mahmud Shah” (E) “Al Sultan Al Adil (The Just Sultan) (G) “Ahmad Abu Mahmud Shah , (H) “Sultan Ahmad”

Executive Summary of Money Museu,

“…..This is our new friends of Museum of Melaka, also Cultural Ambassador of Melaka, to encourage more rakyat and youth to participate and help government to promote our sustainable cultural tourism, at the same time, to educate and enhance our Preservation of Melaka cultural heritage, as what WHC-UNESCO’s convention highlighted….”
“ …..MAM eagerly hope that Melaka will soon be accepted as one of the World Heritage City, or WHC sites, at least, those specifically selected cultural sites within the complex of Kompleks Warisan Melaka, shall be first nominated as our priority for next three years to campaign under
Our Museum belt and cultural corridor around the St Paul Hill… enriched with our above agenda”

1) In 1292, the Marcos Polo, who passed through the Straits of Malacca….on his way home from China, visited Sum,atra, “Ferlec” the first port they entered, now has been identified as Perlak….from Perlak, the Polos went to Sumatra….in its immediate, vicinity have been found the oldest relics, in the form of tombstones, of the Mohammedan, Sultan of Samudra….the Blessed Odoric of Pordenone, who passed that way in 1323; Ibn Batula in 1345-6; Prapanca who composed the Nagarakertagama in 1365…

2) In 1918, Ferrand put forward an ingenious argument in support of Gaspar Correa’s statement in Lendas da India that when the Portuguese arrived Malacca had already been in existence for more than seven (7) centuries. He identified Malacca with Marco Polo’s “Malayur” which he placed on the Peninsula, and with “Ma-li-yu-cul” which, according to the Chinese account, was attacked by the T’sai of Sukhot’ai and before 1292. But, in 1921, Rouffaer attacked Ferrand’s thesis that, he argued that both names referred to Malayu - i.e. Jambi in Sumatra…where our Paramesvara written in our history of Malacca, now known as “Melaka.

3) The Funan Empire of South Indo-China, roughly in the 2nd Century, is believed to have exercised suzerainty in the territory of Northern Malaya. The Hindu Kingdom of Sri Vijaya have great influence in East Sumatra, also in Malay Peninsular, in around 7th century. Javanese Empire of Majapahit had extended its influence to Southern Malaya and Borneo region in the 14th century, but this Majapahit Empire’s influence was overshadowed by the new Islamic Kingdoms in 15trh century. By the middle of the 15th century, the Islamic Empire of Malacca only began to dominate the western half of the Malay Archipelago.

) Parameswara, normally known as a Srivijayan Hindu Prince and fourth rules of Temasik (now known as Singapore), was forced out by the Siamese at the end of 14th century, then Parameswara to flee to Muar and later to Sungei Ujong in Johore, finally arrived at the mouth o f the Bertam River, here Parameswara build up his Kingdom of Malacca which he named after the Malacca tree (Phyllanthus emblica).

In 1409, after Malacca became an important strategic trading port in this region, traders from Sumatra and India, also from China visited and settled in Malacca. Parameswara also formed strategic alliance with Kingdomof Pasai in North Sumatra, and married daughter of its Muslim rules, and he converted to Muslim, assumed the name as Iskandar Shah. Before this, in 1405, Parameswara sent his envoy to Ming Emperor of China, Yung-lo, seek political protection and diplomatic recognition from Ming Emperor, to avoid any attack from foreign power, especially of Siam.

6) During the powerful reign of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca, the neighboring States of Palembang, Jambi, Lingga, Tungkal, Pasai, Inderagiri, Siak (all in the region of Sumatra), Pulau Bentam, Sungei Ujong and Singapore, were all under the influence of Malacca Sultanate. Pahang at that time, was under the control of Siamese, was also occupied in 1470 and placed under the control of Raja Muhammad, son of the Sultan Mansur Shah.

The Chronology of Malacca Sultanate/Rulers of Malacca ( 1400 – 1511 )
Parameswara ( Iskandar Shah) 1400 – 1414
Megat Iskandar Shah 1414 – 1424
Seri Maharajah Muhammad Shah 1424 – 1444
Seri Parameswara Dewa Shah ( Raja Ibrahim ) 1444 - 1445
Sultan Muzaffar Shah ( Raja Kassim ) 1445 - 1477
Sultan Mansur Shah ( Raja Abdullah ) 1477 – 1488
Sultan Mahmud Shah, die at Kampar, Sumatra 1528
Sultan Ahmad Bin Mahmud Shah 1510

Friday, May 4, 2007

“…..This is our new friends of Museum of Melaka, also Cultural Ambassador of Melaka, to encourage more rakyat and youth to participate and help government to promote our sustainable cultural tourism, at the same time, to educate and enhance our Preservation of Melaka cultural heritage, as what WHC-UNESCO’s convention highlighted….”
“ …..MAM eagerly hope that Melaka will soon be accepted as one of the World Heritage City, or WHC sites, at least, those specifically selected cultural sites within the complex of Kompleks Warisan Melaka, shall be first nominated as our priority for next three years to campaign under
Our Museum belt and cultural corridor around the St Paul Hill… enriched with our above agenda”

1) In 1292, the Marcos Polo, who passed through the Straits of Malacca….on his way home from China, visited Sum,atra, “Ferlec” the first port they entered, now has been identified as Perlak….from Perlak, the Polos went to Sumatra….in its immediate, vicinity have been found the oldest relics, in the form of tombstones, of the Mohammedan, Sultan of Samudra….the Blessed Odoric of Pordenone, who passed that way in 1323; Ibn Batula in 1345-6; Prapanca who composed the Nagarakertagama in 1365…

2) In 1918, Ferrand put forward an ingenious argument in support of Gaspar Correa’s statement in Lendas da India that when the Portuguese arrived Malacca had already been in existence for more than seven (7) centuries. He identified Malacca with Marco Polo’s “Malayur” which he placed on the Peninsula, and with “Ma-li-yu-cul” which, according to the Chinese account, was attacked by the T’sai of Sukhot’ai and before 1292. But, in 1921, Rouffaer attacked Ferrand’s thesis that, he argued that both names referred to Malayu - i.e. Jambi in Sumatra…where our Paramesvara written in our history of Malacca, now known as “Melaka.

3) The Funan Empire of South Indo-China, roughly in the 2nd Century, is believed to have exercised suzerainty in the territory of Northern Malaya. The Hindu Kingdom of Sri Vijaya have great influence in East Sumatra, also in Malay Peninsular, in around 7th century. Javanese Empire of Majapahit had extended its influence to Southern Malaya and Borneo region in the 14th century, but this Majapahit Empire’s influence was overshadowed by the new Islamic Kingdoms in 15trh century. By the middle of the 15th century, the Islamic Empire of Malacca only began to dominate the western half of the Malay Archipelago.

The Introduction of Money Museum

“…..We, MAM, strongly feel that an institutional entity, like non profit Money Museum of Melaka shall be incorporated, to house those artifacts found from those reclamation sites And development projects along the sea front and along Sg Melaka, for archaeological Study and academic research, also for educational purposes of our youth, students and tourists.”
“…MAM proposed that these newly discovered cultural property of Melaka, since early 15th century, either in form of ceramics of Song/Ming/Qin Dynasty, or tin coins dated early 13th century or 15-17th century from Malacca Sultanate period, Zheng He period, Portuguese's and Dutch occupation, is unique, may be is The Only kind in this world, shall be well preserved, promoted and professionally digitized, under our Melaka Cultural Digitization Program, to turn Melaka as one of the UNESCO cultural tourism hub in this region…in digital database incubator”
“ …..MAM strongly recommended that certain selected areas near Musembelt and cultural corridor of Kompleks Warisan Melaka, like car park space of Muzium Ethnologi & Sejarah, at Stadhyuts, Clock Tower, shall be re-engineered as corridor for public exhibition and exchange,For regular auction of collectibles of Malaysia/Melaka-oriented cultural collection & items, not Like those countries of Thailand, Indonesia and China found flooded every where & causing Cultural confusion and cultural shock to foreign tourists…..local artists shall be invited and Placed at the surrounding of Sg. Melaka and St. Paul Hill…..as our New Cultural Diplomacy
Of Melaka, also shall be deem as our Melaka Cultural Entrepreneurship…”